Connecting Academic R&D with Product Innovation: A few case studies and a way forward
India's contribution to the world's R&D and Intellectual Property is steadily increasing. In certain specialized areas such as Nanotechnology, India is among the top 3 countries in the world in terms of research publications and patent filings. Despite the low percentage of GDP spending for R&D in India, Indian researchers have excelled in research output, when measured in terms of the number of research publications. Though these are excellent achievements, the situation is entirely different when one looks at the innovation or the product development potential in the country. For example, India ranks very poorly on the Global Innovation Index (GII), and the research undertaken by Indian academic institutions, whether public or private, has hardly resulted in any major technological breakthrough of significant commercial value.
Given this scenario, in order to make the Indian research competitive and sustainable in terms of innovation and product development, a multitude of initiatives have recently been contemplated and launched by the Govt. of India at the national level. In this talk, we will discuss the changing scenario for product innovation in Indian academic and R&D institutions, and also see how one can accelerate the culture of product innovation in the country through a multi-disciplinary approach.
January 18, 2019
Professor Krishna P. Kaliappan Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai
Curiosity, Serendipity and Logicality in Organic Synthesis
Many important scientific discoveries, which actually changed the world, were accidentally observed and established later. Organic Synthesis is no exception and in fact, serendipity and organic synthesis go hand in hand since the early stage of chemical synthesis.1 Many medicines, artificial sweeteners, polymers have been discovered serendipitously and are very well documented in textbooks. Several reactions like, Birch reduction, Friedel-Crafts, Hetero Diels-Alder, Wittig reaction have all been discovered accidentally and benefited the synthetic community in a huge way. In this lecture, some of our serendipitous observations leading to the synthesis of natural products and some pharmaceutically important heterocycles will be discussed in detail.2,3 Our logical efforts leading to the first enantioselective formal synthesis of (-)-vinigrol usinga novel [1,2,3,4] transformation comprising of a domino enyne metathesis/IMDA sequence4 will also be discussed.
(1) (a) Rulev, A. U. New. J. Chem., 2017, 41, 4262 b) Robinson, P. Chem. World, 2016, 13, 40.(c) Laszlo, P.; Hoffmann, R. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 123. (d) Werner, H. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 6052.
(2) (a) Subramanian, P.; Indu, S.; Kaliappan, K. P. Org. Lett.2014, 16, 6212–6215.(b) Indu, S.; Kaliappan, K. P. RSC Adv., 2018,8, 21292–21305. (c) Sakhare, P. R.; Subramanian, P.; Kaliappan, K. P. Manuscript submitted.
(3) Banik, T.; Betkekar, V. V.; Kaliappan, K. P. Chem. Asian J.2018, 13, 3676-3680
(4) Betkekar, V. V.; Sayyad, A. A.; Kaliappan, K. P. Org. Lett.2014, 16, 5540–5543.
January 16, 2019
Professor T. Pradeep, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
Research in the recent past has resulted in a large number of nanoparticles whose properties depend on the number and spatial arrangement of their constituent atoms. This distinct atom-dependence of properties is particularly noticeable in ligand protected atomically precise clusters of noble metals. They behave indeed likemolecules. They show unusual properties such as luminescence in the visible and near-infrared regions. Their molecule-like behavior is most elegantly shown by atom and structure conserving chemical reactions between them. Several clusters, which are archetypal nanoparticles, Ag25(SR)18 and Au25(SR)18 (-SR = alkyl/aryl thiolate) have been used for such reactions. Despite their geometric robustness and electronic stability, reactions between them in solution at room temperature produce alloysAgmAun(SR)18 (m+n=25), keeping their M25(SR)18 composition, structure and topology intact. We captured one of the earliest events of the process, namely the formation of the dianionic adduct, [Ag25Au25(SR)36]2-, by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Molecular docking simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations also suggest that metal atom exchanges could occur through the formation of adducts. Such isomorphous transformations between nanoparticles imply that microscopic pieces of matter can be transformed completely to chemically different entities, preserving their structures, at least in the nanometric regime.Intercluster interactions can also produce cluster dimers and unusual, well-defined alloys.They reflect the shell structure of certain reactants. Atom exchanges suggest interesting dynamics in solution, early results of these investigations will be presented. New experiments in this subject area confirm the fascinating chemical diversity possible in such systems. They are shown to exhibit properties useful for applications.
K. R. Krishnadas, A. Ghosh, A.Baksi, I. Chakraborty, G. Natarajan and T. Pradeep, J. Am. Chem. Soc.2016, 138, 140.
K. R. Krishnadas, A. Baksi, A. Ghosh, G. Natarajan, T. Pradeep,Nat. Commun. 2016, 7, 13447.
A. Baksi, P. Chakraborty, S. Bhat, G. Natarajan, T. Pradeep, Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 8397.
K. R. Krishnadas, A. Baksi, A. Ghosh, G. Natarajan, T. Pradeep,ACS Nano2017, 11, 6015.
K. R. Krishnadas, A. Baksi, A. Ghosh, G. Natarajan, A. Som, T. Pradeep, Acc. Chem. Res.2017, 50, 1988.
S. Bhat, A. Baksi, S. Mudedla, G. Natarajan, V. Subramanian, T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. Lett.2017, 8, 2787
A. Ghosh, M. Bodiuzzaman, A. Nag, M. Jash, A. Baksi, T. Pradeep, ACS Nano2017, 11, 11145.
A. Chakraborty, et. al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2018, 57, 1â€“6 (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201802420).
P. Chakraborty, A. Nag, G. Paramasivam, G. Natarajan, T. Pradeep, ACS Nano2018, 12, 2415.
January 11, 2019
Professor K. George Thomas, IISER, Thiruvananthapuram (IISER-TVM)